There are still no firm answers as to what caused an E. coli outbreak in fresh spinach that has now been reported in 21 states and taken one life, and there are not many firm answers as to how to avoid similar outbreaks in the future.

We know that people should wash all fresh foods to kill most germs and bacteria, but water will not wash away E.coli, salmonella or listeria.

In August, the FDA approved the spraying of some foods with viruses in an effort to stop certain bacteria. The spray isn’t intended to battle E.coli but to destroy the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, reports the ABC News Medical Unit. The spray, called LMP 102, is a mixture of six different special viruses called bacteriophages — viruses that infect only bacteria, not people, animals or plants.